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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

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by the junior author in 1910. Earlier soundings had been made as follows. In 1786 the French explorer, LaPerouse, recorded depths of water in the mouth of outer Yakutat Bay. In 1787 the English explorer, Dixon, sounded in Port Mulgrave, the harbor at the east entrance of Yakutat Bay. In 1791 Malaspina, an Italian in the service of the Spanish, made a few soundings in lower Disenchantment Bay between the native sealing camp and Haenke Island, and made a good map of Port Mulgrave with soundings.1 In 1788, 1793, or 1807 Russian explorers made three or four soundings in western Yakutat Bay near Galiano Glacier.2 Other soundings were made in Icy Bay near the west side of Malaspina Glacier by these Russians and by several English explorers.
In 1890 the American Revenue Cutter Corwin took Russell into Disenchantment Bay, making two soundings, which an officer of the ship has since roughly located for us, near the native sealing camp and west of Haenke Island. They also made several unrecorded soundings, and Russell 8 says that "soundings made between the island (Haenke) and the ice foot (Hubbard) gave forty to sixty fathoms," and that "a few soundings made in Disenchantment Bay within half a mile of the land showed a depth of from 40 to 120 fathoms." In 1891 Russell attempted to determine the depths of water in what we now call Russell Fiord and states 4 that "with a line 170 feet long we could get soundings only in the smaller coves and occasionally within a few rods of shore." In 1892, a century after the early, precisely-located soundings by Malaspina, the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey made an excellent chart of outer Yakutat Bay, showing the depths of water from the Pacific to the mouth of Disenchantment Bay. This is the basis for the bathy-metric map by Gilbert 6 which is reproduced in this book as Fig. 21. The Harriman Expedition made no recorded soundings in 1899, though they carefully investigated with the lead before taking the George W. Elder through Disenchantment Bay, Nunatak Fiord, Seal Bay, and to the very head of Russell Fiord, demonstrating that an ocean-going steamer can sail in all parts of this deep inlet, where floating ice does not prevent. We ourselves made no soundings in 1905 or 1906. In 1905, however, we did locate several new reefs, north of Haenke Island and east of Knight Island, which were uplifted during earthquakes in September, 1899.8 We also made several hundred measurements of amounts of vertical change in about 120 miles of shoreline, where there were uplifts of from 7 to 47 feet, submergences of from 5 to 7 feet, and unknown changes offshore, where there was faulting along some of the fiords. In 1909 an attempt was made to carry out a systematic series of soundings, but the attempt failed because the apparatus which we had proved to be inadequate.
In 1910, the junior author, ably assisted by Mr. E. F. Bean of the University of Wisconsin, made soundings throughout Russell Fiord and all of Disenchantment Bay except the iceberg-crowded western portion. A boat sounding apparatus loaned by the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey made it possible to secure most satisfactory results which are
1 These French, TfrigMah, Spanish, and Russian soundings ore plotted in the respective reports and atlases and reproduced by Russell in Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. HE, 1891, Plates 3, 4, 6, and 7.
" Shown in Tebenkof 's Atlas, 1852, and reproduced by Davidson in Trans, and Proc. Geog. Soc. Pacific, 1904, PI. 6.
 Russell, I. C.. Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. m, 1891, pp. 56 and 100.
4 Russell, I. C., 13th Ann. Rept., U. S. Geol. Survey, Part n, 1892, p. 90.
 Gilbert, G. K., Harriman Alaska Expedition, Vol, HI, 1904, Fig. 27, p. 50.
 Tarr, R. S. and Martin, Lawrence, Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. 17, 1906, PI. 23 facing p. C4.   These reefs are also referred to in U. S. Coast Pilot, Alaska, Part 1, 1908, pp. 185-186.